We are currently living in the “era of the microbiome”, and there is daily development in understanding of the complex and bi-directional relationship between our guts and our brains-evolving into the popular concept of the Gut-Brain Axis (GBA). The microbiome ecosystem can influence central nervous system physiology through production of anti-inflammatory compounds, maintenance of a strong intestinal barrier, production of neurotransmitters, regulation of stress response, and vagal nerve stimulation. While intricate, this system is delicate. Low gut diversity means less production of signaling molecules and neurotransmitters. The microbial ecosystem can help modulate stress response, but chronic stress can dampen microbial diversity. Thus, there is elaborate two-way cross talk between the gut and the brain and dysfunction in this messaging has strong potential for vicious cycles of ill health- including mental health-in today’s modern world. Fortunately, there are emerging therapeutic tools to “manipulate the microbiome” and improve the connectivity between these two fundamental organs. Learn about these mechanisms and promising new interventions in this talk!